Know Basic of GPS and Navigation
GPS (Global Positioning System): GPS is a satellite-based navigation system that was developed by the U.S. Department of Defence in the early 1970’s. GPS provides continuous positioning and timing information anywhere in the world under any weather conditions. The GPS system is a constellation of 24 satellites. This constellation is known as Initial Operational Capability (IOC) which was completed in 1993. GPS satellites are nearly circular with an inclination of 55 degrees to the equator. The GPS satellites circle the Earth at an altitude of about 20,000 km (12,427 miles) and complete two full orbits every day.
GNSS(Global Navigation Satelite System): Although you are already familiar with the term “GPS”, you may not have heard the term “GNSS” which is a worldwide position and time determination system that includes one or more satellite constellations, aircraft receivers, and system integrity monitoring, augmented at necessary to support the required navigation performance for the intended operation.
History of Navigation:
–13th Century: Magnetic Compass
– 1907: Gyrocompass
– 1912: Radio Direction Finding
– The 1930’s: Radar and Inertial Nav
– The 1940’s: Loran-A
–1960’s: Omega and Transit
– 1970’s: Loran-C
– 1980’s: GPS
Note* The first GPS satellite NAVISTAR-1 was launched by United States Air Force on February 22, 1972
Indian Navigation System:
IRNSS: The Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) is a regional satellite navigation system designed by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). IRNSS is India’s own GPS-like system. It is designed to provide accurate position information service to users in India as well as the region extending up to 1500 km from its boundary, which is its primary service area.
Gagan: The Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) and Airports Authority of India (AAI) in August 2001 has implemented the GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation-GAGAN project as a Satellite Based Augmentation System (SBAS) for the Indian Airspace. The GAGAN’s goal is to provide a navigation system to assist aircraft in accurate landing over the Indian airspace and in the adjoining area and applicable to safety-to-life civil operations. GAGAN is the first Satellite-Based Augmentation System in the world which has been certified for approach with vertical guidance operating in the equatorial ionospheric region.
Note* Recently ISRO’s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle PSLV-C41 successfully launched the 1425 kg IRNSS-1I Navigation Satellite on April 12, 2018, from Satish Dhawan Space Centre SHAR, Sriharikota.
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