Understanding the GPS by Gregory T French

Understanding the GPS by Gregory T French
Series: GPS
ISBN: 096557237
About the Book

Contents
Part I Introduction and Background
Introduction 3
Topics 7
What is GPS? 9
Radio-Navigation Systems 11
Evolution of the GPS 15
GPS Civil Applications 19
GPS Segments 21
Control Segment 23
Control Segment Locations 25
Space Segment 27
Orbits 29
Launch History 31
How Does GPS Work? 33
Two-Way vs. One-Way Ranging 35
Single Range to Single Satellite 37
Two Ranges to Two Satellites 39
Three Ranges to Three Satellites 41
Why Four Satellites? 43
Clock Timing Error 45
Part II Basic Signal Structure and Error
Levels of GPS Service 53
Basic Signal Structure 55
Pseudo-Random Codes 59
Where Are the Satellites? 65
GPS Signal Structure Map 67
Signal Strength 69
GPS Resolution – C/A-Code 71
GPS Resolution – P-Code 73
Anti-Spoofing (A/S) 75
iii
Carrier-Phase Positioning 79
GPS Resolution – Carrier-Phase 83
GPS Velocity 85
GPS Error Budget 87
Ionospheric / Tropospheric Refraction 89
Satellite Mask Angle 91
Multi-Path Errors 93
Selective Availability 95
Dilution of Precision (DOP) 97
Project Planning 105
Position Offsets 109
Almanacs 117
Absolute Accuracy 119
Part III Data Correction Techniques and
High-Resolution Accuracy
Differential Correction 123
Post-Processed Corrections 127
Real-Time Corrections 131
Post-Processing vs. Real-Time 135
Differential Data Sources 137
C.O.R.S. Network 139
U.S. Coast Guard Beacons 145
U.S.C.G and A.C.O.E Radio-Beacon Coverage 147
W.A.A.S 149
Commercial Geostationary Satellites 151
Real-Time FM Sub-Carriers 153
Predicted Coverage for FM DGPS 155
Other Improvement Techniques 157
Accuracy 159
Error Terms 161
iv
Part IV Basic Geodesy, Data Collection Techniques
and GPS Applications
Geodetic Coordinate Systems 165
Ellipsoid vs. Geoid 167
WGS84 169
What’s So Special About GPS Heights? 171
Geodetic Heights 173
Data Collection Techniques 175
Points vs. Positions 179
Lines From Points 181
Areas From Points 183
Differential Applications 185
Geographic Information Systems 187
GPS/GIS Applications 189
Aerial Photo Control 191
Satellite Imagery, GPS and GIS 193
Geographic Features 195
GPS GIS Point Data Capture 197
GPS GIS Line Data Capture 199
Areas From Points 201
External Data Source 203
GPS Surveying 205
GPS Navigation 207
IVHS 209
Receiver Types 219
The Future of GPS 221
Appendix I Glossary 227
Appendix II Suggested Readings 247
About the Author 255

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