The present book is an attempt to provide basic fundamentals of GIS for beginners.
The book is evolved following the basic education approach, spreading onto three stages
of learning. The first stage is about basic fundamentals, here development in technology
instigating the learning processes are discussed. This is spread over the first three chapters,
which introduces the beginners to the GIS as a discipline, its history, development and
evolvement process. The second stage is about the scope of the field, here the emphasis is
on issues of technological advancements and revolution in spatial learning and their basic
concepts. In this section, four chapters (fourth to eighth) cover the breadth and also depth
of GIS, here geographic data, nature, structure, source and real-world models are elaborated.
Lastly, the third stage of learning, where the approach works towards the development of
critical thinking, using the knowledge base acquired from the earlier chapters. The last four
chapters discuss geographic query, analysis, selection and future of GIS, project design and